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KV (Key-Value) Plugin

The Key-Value plugin provides the ability to store arbitrary data inside the RoadRunner between different requests (in case of HTTP application) or different types of applications. Thus, using Temporal, for example, you can transfer data inside the HTTP application and vice versa.

As a permanent source of data, the RoadRunner allows you to use popular solutions, such as Redis Server or Memcached, but in addition it provides others that do not require a separate server, such as BoltDB, and also allows you to replace permanent storage with temporary that stores data in RAM.

kv-general-info

Installation

Requirements

  • PHP >= 7.4
  • RoadRunner >= 2.3
  • ext-protobuf (optional)

To get access from the PHP code, you should put the corresponding dependency using the Composer.

$ composer require spiral/roadrunner-kv

Configuration

After installing all the required dependencies, you need to configure this plugin. To enable it add kv section to your configuration:

version: "2.7"

rpc:
  listen: tcp://127.0.0.1:6001

kv:
  example:
    driver: memory
    config: {}

Please note that to interact with the KV, you will also need the RPC defined in rpc configuration section. You can read more about the configuration and methods of creating the RPC connection on the documentation page here.

This configuration initializes this plugin with one storage named "example". In addition, each storage must have a driver that indicates the type of connection used by those storages. In total, at the moment, 4 different types of drivers are available with their own characteristics and additional settings: boltdb, redis, memcached and memory.

The memory and boltdb drivers do not require additional binaries and are available immediately, while the rest require additional setup. Please see the appropriate documentation for installing Redis Server and/or Memcached Server.

Memory Driver Configuration

This type of driver is already supported by the RoadRunner and does not require any additional installations.

Please note that using this type of storage, all data is contained in memory and will be destroyed when the RoadRunner Server is restarted. If you need persistent storage without additional dependencies, then it is recommended to use the boltdb driver.

The complete memory driver configuration looks like this:

version: "2.7"

kv:
  # User defined name of the storage.
  memory:
    # Required section.
    # Should be "memory" for the memory driver.
    driver: memory

    config:
      # Optional section.
      # Default: 60
      interval: 60

Below is a more detailed description of each of the memory-specific options:

  • interval - The interval (in seconds) between checks for the lifetime of the value in the cache. For large values of the interval, the cache item will be checked less often for expiration of its lifetime. It is recommended to use large values only in cases when the cache is used without expiration values, or in cases when this value is not critical to the architecture of your application. Note that the lower this value, the higher the load on the system.

Boltdb Driver Configuration

This type of driver is already supported by the RoadRunner and does not require any additional installations.

The complete boltdb driver configuration looks like this:

version: "2.7"

kv:
  # User defined name of the storage.
  boltdb:
    # Required section.
    # Should be "boltdb" for the boltdb driver.
    driver: boltdb

    config:
      # Optional section.
      # Default: "rr.db"
      file: "./rr.db"

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0777
      permissions: 0777

      # Optional section.
      # Default: "rr"
      bucket: "rr"

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 60
      interval: 60

Below is a more detailed description of each of the boltdb-specific options:

  • file - Database file path name. In the case that such a file does not exist in, RoadRunner will create this file on its own at startup. Note that this must be an existing directory, otherwise a "The system cannot find the path specified" error will be occurred, indicating that the full database pathname is invalid. Might be a full path with file: /foo/bar/rr1.db. Default: rr.db.

  • permissions - The file permissions in UNIX format of the database file, set at the time of its creation. If the file already exists, the permissions will not be changed.

  • bucket - The bucket name. You can create several boltdb connections by specifying different buckets and in this case the data stored in one bucket will not intersect with the data stored in the other, even if the database file and other settings are completely identical.

  • interval - The interval (in seconds) between checks for the lifetime of the value in the cache. The meaning and behavior is similar to that used in the case of the memory driver.

Redis Driver Configuration

Before configuring the Redis driver, please make sure that the Redis Server is installed and running. You can read more about this in the documentation.

In the simplest case, when a full-fledged cluster or a fault-tolerant system is not required, we have one connection to the Redis Server. The configuration of such a connection will look like this.

version: "2.7"

kv:
  # User defined name of the storage.
  redis:
    # Required section.
    # Should be "redis" for the redis driver.
    driver: redis

    config:
      # Optional section.
      # By default, one connection will be specified with the
      # "localhost:6379" value.
      addrs:
        - "localhost:6379"

      # Optional section.
      # Default: ""
      username: ""

      # Optional section.
      # Default: ""
      password: ""

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0
      db: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (equivalent to the default value of 5 seconds)
      dial_timeout: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (equivalent to the default value of 3 retries)
      max_retries: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (equivalent to the default value of 8ms)
      min_retry_backoff: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (equivalent to the default value of 512ms)
      max_retry_backoff: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (equivalent to the default value of 10 connections per CPU).
      pool_size: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (do not use idle connections)
      min_idle_conns: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (do not close aged connections)
      max_conn_age: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (equivalent to the default value of 3s)
      read_timeout: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (equivalent to the value specified in the "read_timeout" section)
      write_timeout: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (equivalent to the value specified in the "read_timeout" + 1s)
      pool_timeout: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (equivalent to the default value of 5m)
      idle_timeout: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: 0 (equivalent to the default value of 1m)
      idle_check_freq: 0

      # Optional section.
      # Default: false
      read_only: false

Below is a more detailed description of each of the Redis-specific options:

  • addrs - An array of strings of connections to the Redis Server. Must contain at least one value of an existing connection in the format of host or IP address and port, separated by a colon (:) character.

  • username - Optional value containing the username credentials of the Redis connection. You can omit this field, or specify an empty string if the username of the connection is not specified.

  • password - Optional value containing the password credentials of the Redis connection. You can omit this field, or specify an empty string if the password of the connection is not specified.

  • db - An optional identifier for the database used in this connection to the Redis Server. Read more about databases section on the documentation page for the description of the select command.

  • dial_timeout - Server connection timeout. A value of 0 is equivalent to a timeout of 5 seconds (5s). After the specified time has elapsed, if the connection has not been established, a connection error will occur.

    Must be in the format of a "numeric value" + "time format suffix", like "2h" where suffixes means:

    • h - the number of hours. For example 1h means 1 hour.
    • m - the number of minutes. For example 2m means 2 minutes.
    • s - the number of seconds. For example 3s means 3 seconds.
    • ms - the number of milliseconds. For example 4ms means 4 milliseconds.
    • If no suffix is specified, the value will be interpreted as specified in nanoseconds. In most cases, this accuracy is redundant and may not be true. For example 5 means 5 nanoseconds.

    Please note that all time intervals can be suffixed.

  • max_retries - Maximum number of retries before giving up. Specifying 0 is equivalent to the default (3 attempts). If you need to specify an infinite number of connection attempts, specify the value -1.

  • min_retry_backoff - Minimum backoff between each retry. Must be in the format of a "numeric value" + "time format suffix". A value of 0 is equivalent to a timeout of 8 milliseconds (8ms). A value of -1 disables backoff.

  • max_retry_backoff - Maximum backoff between each retry. Must be in the format of a "numeric value" + "time format suffix". A value of 0 is equivalent to a timeout of 512 milliseconds (512ms). A value of -1 disables backoff.

  • pool_size - Maximum number of RoadRunner socket connections. A value of 0 is equivalent to a 10 connections per every CPU. Please note that specifying the value corresponds to the number of connections per core, so if you have 8 cores in your system, then setting the option to 2 you will get 16 connections.

  • min_idle_conns - Minimum number of idle connections which is useful when establishing new connection is slow. A value of 0 means no such idle connections. More details about the problem requiring the presence of this option available in the corresponding issue.

  • max_conn_age - Connection age at which client retires (closes) the connection. A value of 0 is equivalent to a disabling this option. In this case, aged connections will not be closed.

  • read_timeout - Timeout for socket reads. If reached, commands will fail with a timeout instead of blocking. Must be in the format of a "numeric value" + "time format suffix". A value of 0 is equivalent to a timeout of 3 seconds (3s). A value of -1 disables timeout.

  • write_timeout - Timeout for socket writes. If reached, commands will fail with a timeout instead of blocking. A value of 0 is equivalent of the value specified in the read_timeout section. If read_timeout value is not specified, a value of 3 seconds (3s) will be used.

  • pool_timeout - Amount of time client waits for connection if all connections are busy before returning an error. A value of 0 is equivalent of the value specified in the read_timeout + 1s. If read_timeout value is not specified, a value of 4 seconds (4s) will be used.

  • idle_timeout - Amount of time after which client closes idle connections. Must be in the format of a "numeric value" + "time format suffix". A value of 0 is equivalent to a timeout of 5 minutes (5m). A value of -1 disables idle timeout check.

  • idle_check_freq - Frequency of idle checks made by idle connections reaper. Must be in the format of a "numeric value" + "time format suffix". A value of 0 is equivalent to a timeout of 1 minute (1m). A value of -1 disables idle connections reaper. Note, that idle connections are still discarded by the client if idle_timeout is set.

  • read_only - An optional boolean value that enables or disables read-only mode. If true value is specified, the writing will be unavailable. Note that this option not allowed when working with Redis Sentinel.

These are all options available for all Redis connection types.

Redis Cluster

In the case that you want to configure a Redis Cluster, then you can specify additional options required only if you are organizing this type of server.

When creating a cluster, multiple connections are available to you. For example, you call such a command redis-cli --cluster create 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1:6380, you should specify the appropriate set of connections. In addition, when organizing a cluster, two additional options with algorithms for working with connections will be available to you: route_by_latency and route_randomly.

version: "2.7"

kv:
  redis:
    driver: redis
    config:
      addrs:
        - "127.0.0.1:6379"
        - "127.0.0.1:6380"

      # Optional section.
      # Default: false
      route_by_latency: false

      # Optional section.
      # Default: false
      route_randomly: false

Where new options means:

  • route_by_latency - Allows routing read-only commands to the closest master or slave node. If this option is specified, the read_only configuration value will be automatically set to true.

  • route_randomly - Allows routing read-only commands to the random master or slave node. If this option is specified, the read_only configuration value will be automatically set to true.

Redis Sentinel

Redis Sentinel provides high availability for Redis. You can find more information about Sentinel on the documentation page.

There are two additional options available for the Sentinel configuration: master_name and sentinel_password.

version: "2.7"

kv:
  redis:
    driver: redis

    config:
      # Required section.
      master_name: ""

      # Optional section.
      # Default: "" (no password)
      sentinel_password: ""

Where Sentinel's options means:

  • master_name - The name of the Sentinel's master in string format.

  • sentinel_password - Sentinel password from "requirepass " (if enabled) in Sentinel configuration.

Memcached Driver Configuration

Before configuring the Memcached driver, please make sure that the Memcached Server is installed and running. You can read more about this in the documentation.

The complete memcached driver configuration looks like this:

version: "2.7"

kv:
  # User defined name of the storage.
  memcached:
    # Required section.
    # Should be "memcached" for the memcached driver.
    driver: memcached
    config:
      # Optional section.
      # Default: "localhost:11211"
      addr: "localhost:11211"

Below is a more detailed description of each of the memcached-specific options:

  • addr - String of memcached connection in format "[HOST]:[PORT]". In the case that there are several memcached servers, then the list of connections can be listed in an array format, for example: addr: [ "localhost:11211", "localhost:11222" ].

Usage

First, you need to create the RPC connection to the RoadRunner server. You can specify an address with a connection by hands or use automatic detection if you run the php code as a RoadRunner Worker.

use Spiral\RoadRunner\Environment;
use Spiral\Goridge\RPC\RPC;

// Manual configuration
$rpc = RPC::create('tcp://127.0.0.1:6001');

// Autodetection
$env = Environment::fromGlobals();
$rpc = RPC::create($env->getRPCAddress());

After creating the RPC connection, you should create the Spiral\RoadRunner\KeyValue\Factory object for working with storages of KV RoadRunner plugin.

The factory object provides two methods for working with the plugin.

  • Method Factory::isAvailable(): bool returns boolean true value if the plugin is available and false otherwise.

  • Method Factory::select(string): CacheInterface receives the name of the storage as the first argument and returns the implementation of the PSR-16 Psr\SimpleCache\CacheInterface for interact with the key-value RoadRunner storage.

use Spiral\Goridge\RPC\RPC;
use Spiral\RoadRunner\KeyValue\Factory;

$factory = new Factory(RPC::create('tcp://127.0.0.1:6001'));

if (!$factory->isAvailable()) {
    throw new \LogicException('The "kv" RoadRunner plugin not available');
}

$storage = $factory->select('storage-name');
// Expected:
//  An instance of Psr\SimpleCache\CacheInterface interface

$storage->set('key', 'value');

echo $storage->get('key');
// Expected:
//  string(5) "string"

The clear() method available since RoadRunner v2.3.1.

Apart from this, RoadRunner Key-Value API provides several additional methods: You can use getTtl(string): ?\DateTimeInterface and getMultipleTtl(string): iterable<\DateTimeInterface|null> methods to get information about the expiration of an item stored in a key-value storage.

Please note that the memcached driver does not support these methods.

$ttl = $factory->select('memory')
    ->getTtl('key');
// Expected:
//  - An instance of \DateTimeInterface if "key" expiration time is available
//  - Or null otherwise

$ttl = $factory->select('memcached')
    ->getTtl('key');
// Expected:
//  Spiral\RoadRunner\KeyValue\Exception\KeyValueException: Storage "memcached"
//  does not support kv.TTL RPC method execution. Please use another driver for
//  the storage if you require this functionality.

Value Serialization

To save and receive data from the key-value store, the data serialization mechanism is used. This way you can store and receive arbitrary serializable objects.

$storage->set('test', (object)['key' => 'value']);

$item = $storage->set('test');
// Expected:
//  object(StdClass)#399 (1) {
//    ["key"] => string(5) "value"
//  }

To specify your custom serializer, you will need to specify it in the key-value factory constructor as a second argument, or use the Factory::withSerializer(SerializerInterface): self method.

use Spiral\Goridge\RPC\RPC;
use Spiral\RoadRunner\KeyValue\Factory;

$connection = RPC::create('tcp://127.0.0.1:6001');

$storage = (new Factory($connection))
    ->withSerializer(new CustomSerializer())
    ->select('storage');

In the case that you need a specific serializer for a specific value from the storage, then you can use a similar method withSerializer() for a specific storage.

// Using default serializer
$storage->set('key', 'value');

// Using custom serializer
$storage
    ->withSerializer(new CustomSerializer())
    ->set('key', 'value');

Igbinary Value Serialization

As you know, the serialization mechanism in PHP is not always productive. To increase the speed of work, it is recommended to use the ignbinary extension.

  • For the Windows OS, you can download it from the PECL website.

  • In a Linux and MacOS environment, it may be installed with a simple command:

    $ pecl install igbinary

More detailed installation instructions are available here.

After installing the extension, you just need to install the desired igbinary serializer in the factory instance.

use Spiral\Goridge\RPC\RPC;
use Spiral\RoadRunner\KeyValue\Factory;
use Spiral\RoadRunner\KeyValue\Serializer\IgbinarySerializer;

$storage = (new Factory(RPC::create('tcp://127.0.0.1:6001')))
    ->withSerializer(new IgbinarySerializer())
    ->select('storage');
//
// Now this $storage is using igbinary serializer.
//

End-to-End Value Encryption

Some data may contain sensitive information, such as personal data of the user. In these cases, it is recommended to use data encryption.

To use encryption, you need to install the Sodium extension.

Next, you should have an encryption key generated using sodium_crypto_box_keypair() function. You can do this using the following command:

$ php -r "echo sodium_crypto_box_keypair();" > keypair.key

Do not store security keys in a control versioning systems (like GIT)!

After generating the keypair, you can use it to encrypt and decrypt the data.

use Spiral\Goridge\RPC\RPC;
use Spiral\RoadRunner\KeyValue\Factory;
use Spiral\RoadRunner\KeyValue\Serializer\SodiumSerializer;
use Spiral\RoadRunner\KeyValue\Serializer\DefaultSerializer;

$storage = new Factory(RPC::create('tcp://127.0.0.1:6001'));
    ->select('storage');

// Encrypted serializer
$key = file_get_contents(__DIR__ . '/path/to/keypair.key');
$encrypted = new SodiumSerializer($storage->getSerializer(), $key);

// Storing public data
$storage->set('user.login', 'test');

// Storing private data
$storage->withSerializer($encrypted)
    ->set('user.email', 'test@example.com');

RPC Interface

All communication between PHP and GO made by the RPC calls with protobuf payloads. You can find versioned proto-payloads here: Proto.

  • Has(in *kvv1.Request, out *kvv1.Response) - The arguments: the first argument is a Request , which declares a storage and an array of Items ; the second argument is a Response, it will contain Items with keys which are present in the provided via Request storage. Item value and timeout are not present in the response. The error returned if the request fails.

  • Set(in *kvv1.Request, _ *kvv1.Response) - The arguments: the first argument is a Request with the Items to set; return value isn't used and present here only because GO's RPC calling convention. The error returned if request fails.

  • MGet(in *kvv1.Request, out *kvv1.Response) - The arguments: the first argument is a Request with Items which should contain only keys (server doesn't check other fields); the second argument is Response with the Items. Every item will have key and value set, but without timeout (See: TTL). The error returned if request fails.

  • MExpire(in *kvv1.Request, _ *kvv1.Response) - The arguments: the first argument is a Request with Items which should contain keys and timeouts set; return value isn't used and present here only because GO's RPC calling convention. The error returned if request fails.

  • TTL(in *kvv1.Request, out *kvv1.Response) - The arguments: the first argument is a Request with Items which should contain keys; return value will contain keys with their timeouts. The error returned if request fails.

  • Delete(in *kvv1.Request, _ *kvv1.Response) - The arguments: the first argument is a Request with Items which should contain keys to delete; return value isn't used and present here only because GO's RPC calling convention. The error returned if request fails.

  • Clear(in *kvv1.Request, _ *kvv1.Response) - The arguments: the first argument is a Request with storage which should contain the storage to be cleaned up; return value isn't used and present here only because GO's RPC calling convention. The error returned if request fails.

From the PHP point of view, such requests (MGet for example) are as follows:

use Spiral\Goridge\RPC\RPC;
use Spiral\Goridge\RPC\Codec\ProtobufCodec;
use Spiral\RoadRunner\KeyValue\DTO\V1\{Request, Response};

$response = RPC::create('tcp://127.0.0.1:6001')
    ->withServicePrefix('kv')
    ->withCodec(new ProtobufCodec())
    ->call('MGet', new Request([ ... ]), Response::class);